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Sumateran Elephant

The Sumatran elephant is a subspecies of the Asian elephant. Now, the elephant is the greatest kind of animal living in the wild. The Sumatran elephant even into mammals with the largest body size in the archipelago. Physical Characteristic of elephants is a trunk and tusks. The Sumatran elephant ivory males have shorter class, while the female Sumatran elephants more unique because it has a very short tusks. If you see at a glance, it would seem as though the ivory was hiding behind the upper lip.

Picture : Himpunan Penggiat Alam (HIPAM)

The Sumatran elephant or Elephas maximus sumatranus are intelligent animals who had larger brain size compared to other mammals. These giant animals requires the input of 150 kg of leaves as food and 180 liters of water every day.

Once drinking, Sumatran elephants could spend 9 liters of water to suck through the proboscis. Besides drinking, animal trunk also serves to pick up objects at the edges.

The Sumatran elephant weights generally range between 4 to 6 tons with height 1.7 to 2.6 meters. With its giant size, Sumatran elephants could roam as far as 20 km in one day in order to meet their food intake. The Sumatran elephant has a high sensitivity to sounds, it is supported by the size of their ears large enough. In terms of age, Sumatran elephants that live in care are usually able to survive for longer periods of 70 years, compared to those living in the wild wild, they generally shorter-lived because of the many threats that disrupt their survival.

Mobility is quite high resulting Sumatran elephants can live in the habitat types that vary, such as swamp forests, peat swamp forests, lowland forests, low mountains and rain forest. Sumatran elephants love forests overgrown with dense trees, but can be used as a shelter to stabilize the body temperature during hot weather, as well as giant animals Sumatran require the supply of green food for the main menu and also complementary in order to ensure adequate intake of calcium mineral for the growth of ivory, bone and tooth. Not only dense trees, they also will choose habitats that have water sources.

They are a species that is highly dependent on the availability of water for drinking and wallowing. Interestingly, elephants use their mouths to drink while bathing in the river, but use the trunk while drinking in the marshes and shallow rivers. Sumatran elephants chose to eat in the rain or after the rain stopped in order to meet the needs of mineral salts in the body such as calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Another clever way that they do is to loosen the soil cliffs or eating soil clods containing salt. An extreme, typical animal Sumatra island is frequently injured body parts in order to be able to brush blood that contains salt.

Another characteristic that belongs to this animal is its tendency to live in groups. In exploration, the elephants will retain their peers and communicate through voice vibrations originating from the base of its trunk.

Reproductive function in mature female elephants at the age of 8 to 10 years old, young enough when compared to a reproductive life of male elephants mature when in the 12 to 15. Did you know that female Sumatran endemic takes 19 to 21 months during the pregnancy to labor and gave birth to only one tail only. Baby elephants are generally suckle on the mother for two years and was born with a weight of 90 kg.

Unfortunately, the Sumatran elephant entered in the class of endangered species (endangered) on the red list of threatened species by the IUCN World Conservation Society.

Many things can trigger the extinction, ranging from assault wild in the forest, land acquisition for plantations and construction, as well as the slaughter by humans because it considers these animals as enemies who sometimes enter human settlements due to forest habitat they are constantly encroached upon by the interests of commercial businesses.

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